Jun 16, 2024  
College Catalog 2022-2023 
College Catalog 2022-2023 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIOL 1400 - Fundamentals of Nutrition

Credit Hours: 3.00

Prerequisites: None

A study of the nature and role of human nutrition with emphasis on changing needs in life’s cycle. The relationship between nutrition and health throughout life is explored. No lab.

Billable Contact Hours: 3

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Outcome 1: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to explain the six classes of nutrients and their relationship to health, and the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for each.


  1. Identify the six classes of nutrients.
  2. Describe in writing how factors such as early experience, customs, advertising, and economics can affect our food choices.
  3. List the functional roles of nutrients in the body.
  4. List six classes of nutrients and an example of a food that represents each class.
  5. Identify which of the classes of nutrients are considered organic and which are inorganic.
  6. State in writing the function of each of the classes of nutrients listed above.
  7. State in writing the unit of energy associated with food and list the caloric yield from each class of nutrients.
  8. Describe in writing the difference between a food, essential nutrient, non-essential nutrient, energy, and phytochemical.
  9. State the nutritional information required on a food label.
  10. State the goal of the Myplate and the groups that comprise it.
  11. List the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
  12. Explain the difference between energy dense and nutrient dense foods.
  13. Distinguish between macronutrient and micronutrient
  14. Discuss ways nutrition can affect health
  15. Differentiate between malnutrition, overnutrition, and undernutrition.
  16. Discuss the importance of serving size
  17. Explain DRI(daily reference intakes), DV(daily values), RDA(recommended dietary allowances), AI(adequate intake), and UL(upper limit).
  18. Describe the health claims and label descriptions allowed by the FDA

Outcome 2: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to compare the function, requirements, and digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.


 1. State the two subclasses of carbohydrates and give an example of each.
 2. State two examples of the following types of carbohydrates:
     a. Monosaccharides.
     b. Disaccharides.
     c. Polysaccharides.
 3. State the function of each of these carbohydrate molecules in human nutrition:
     a. Glucose.
     b. Starch.
     c. Cellulose (fiber).
     d. Glycogen.
 4. List two substances classified as “fiber” and the consequences with inadequate intake.
 5. Describe the body’s use of glucose in ATP production and glycogen formation.
 6. Discuss the conditions that lead to the following carbohydrate problems:
     a. Lactose intolerance.
     b. Diabetes Type II and type I, their symptoms and treatment
     c. Hypoglycemia.
     d. Insulin resistance
     e. Diverticulitis
 7. Discuss glycemic index and load in regards to the effect on blood glucose levels.
 8. Describe the regulation of blood glucose levels including the hormones involved and the stimulus for their release.                   
 9. Describe the different types of artificial sweeteners.
10. Name the four classes of lipids and their roles in nutrition.
11. List the functions of lipids in the human body.
12. Differentiate between saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Give examples of each type of fat in the diet.
13. Explain why manufacturers hydrogenate fats and the possible health implications of consuming trans fatty acids formed during hydrogenation.    
14. Identify the classes of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VDL, LDL, and HDL) and explain their functions in the body.
15. Discuss how carbohydrates and protein can be converted to fat.    
16. Discuss the implications of lipids with respect to heart disease and obesity.
17. Name some essential fatty acid and list food sources for each.
18. Discuss Myplate groups related to lipids.
19. Explain how the chemical composition of proteins differs from that of lipids and carbohydrates. 
20. Describe and diagram how amino acids make up protein.
21. Distinguish between essential and non-essential amino acids.
22. Explain why adequate amounts of essential amino acids are required in the diet.
23. List the functions of protein in the diet.
24. Distinguish between complete and incomplete proteins.
25. Explain nitrogen-balance and situations which affect nitrogen balance in the body.
26. List the health risks associated with a diet too high or too low in protein.
27. State the importance of proteins (particularly enzymes) and how they function.
28. Calculate the RDA for protein for the adult.
29. Explain how it is possible for vegetarians (or vegans) to obtain their necessary protein.
30. Describe the denaturation of a protein.
31. Discuss the Myplate groups related to protein, carbohydrates, and lipids.
32. Describe the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. 
33. Calculate the calorie content of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and alcohol from weight in grams.
34. Explain how alcohol is absorbed, metabolized, and the problems of long-term consumption.

Outcome 3: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to explain the roles of vitamins and minerals in nutrition.


  1. Classify vitamins as fat-soluble or water-soluble.
  2. List the major functions, toxicity symptoms, and deficiency symptoms for each fat and water-soluble vitamin.
  3. List important food sources for each fat and water-soluble vitamin.
  4. List ways that we can prevent foods from losing their vitamin content.
  5. Name the vitamins that are considered antioxidants and coenzymes.
  6. Debate a pro or con argument for vitamin supplement.
  7. Discuss the Myplate groups as they relate to vitamins.
  8. Define antioxidant, free radical, coenzyme, bioavailability, and choline. 
  9. List and explain the functions of water in the body and how much water is needed by adults..
  10. Name the organs and major minerals responsible for regulating the constancy of body salts and water balance.
  11. Classify the minerals as major or trace.
  12. List the major functions and deficiency symptoms for the minerals.
  13. List important food sources for the minerals.
  14. Describe the health conditions, dietary factors and other relationships that affect absorption, retention, and availability of some minerals, particularly iron and calcium.
  15. Define dehydration, diuretic, electrolyte, hypertension, mineral, osmosis, osteoporosis, solute, solvent, and water intoxication.
  16. Describe how the body regulates water intake and output to maintain water balance and the hormones involved.
  17. Describe the symptoms of dehydration

Outcome 4: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to describe the functions of major and accessory organs in digestion


  1. List the major and accessory organs involved with digestion.  
  2. Distinguish between cell, tissue, organ, and organ system.
  3. Identify the organ systems of the body and how they function.
  4. Describe the mechanical and chemical processes that occur in each stage of digestion.
  5. Outline the absorption and transport process for each of the nutrient groups.
  6. Identify the organs and structures of the digestive system and the function of each.
  7. Define absorption, ATP, bolus, cellular respiration, chyme, digestion, enzyme, peristalsis, prebiotic, probiotic, and segmentation.
  8. Name the hormones and enzymes involved in digestion and describe the function of each
  9. Explain the role of mitochondria in cellular respiration.
  10. Describe the symptoms and treatments of following disorders.
    a. ulcers
    b. heartburn (acid reflux)
    c. diarrhea and constipation
    d. food allergies
    e. celiac disease
    f. gallstones

Outcome 5: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to summarize the relationship between energy balance, weight control, and physical activity with respect to health and nutrition.


  1. Describe the relationship between energy in and energy out.  Calculate the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and voluntary activity.
  2. List the factors that affect the BMR.
  3. Describe four methods of determining percentage of body fat composition and explain importance of percentage of fat composition.
  4. Evaluate the effectiveness of Body Mass Index as a tool for determining body weight .
  5. Define obesity and outline the risks to health posed by obesity.
  6. Describe how calorie intake, behavior modification, and increased physical activity fit into a weight control plan.
  7. Distinguish between anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder.    
  8. Keep food diary for three days, look up food composition and compare to recommended intakes.
  9. Distinguish between visceral and subcutaneous fat and the impact of each on health.
  10. Discuss the physiological and environmental factors that affect body weight.
  11. Describe the physiological signals that determine hunger and satiety and the hormones involved.
  12. Explain the concept of set point.
  13. Summarize the recommended strategies to promote weight control and compare to popular weight reduction diets.
  14. Explain the benefits of physical activity.
  15. Identify the energy sources used by the body during physical activity.
  16. Distinguish between muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance.
  17. List the major signs and symptoms of heat-related illness.
  18. Differentiate between anaerobic and aerobic production of energy and the advantages/disadvantages of each.
  19. Explain the importance of carbohydrate loading, and the consumption of water/sports drinks during exercise.
  20. Describe the importance played by vitamins and minerals during physical activity.
  21. List ergogenic aids and describe their effects on physical performance.   

Outcome 6: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to identify proper storage and handling of food.


 1. Identify federal agencies responsible for the safety of the U.S. food supply and the role of each.
 2. Explain how a HACCP (Health Hazard Critical Control Point) system helps prevent food-borne illness.
 3. Discuss how microbial food poisoning can be prevented (including cross contamination) and indicate which foods are particularly troublesome.
 4. Identify the viruses and bacteria that can cause food borne illness including:
     a. Norovirus
     b. Listeria monocytogenes
     c. Escherichia coli O157:H7
     d. Salmonella species
     3. Staphylococcus aureus
     f. Clostridium botulinum
 5. Identify the foods and symptoms with common food borne illnesses.
 6. List the four major food processing techniques and their impact on the nutrient content of food.
 7. Discuss the regulations concerning food additives and identify the roles of the major classes of additives.
 8. Identify sources of toxic environmental contaminants in foods and the related complications of ingestion.
 9. Explain how genetic engineering introduces new traits into plants and is being used to enhance the food supply.
10. Describe how genetically modified foods are regulated to ensure safety.

Outcome 7:    Upon completion of this course, students will be able to identify the impact of health and nutrition during different stages of the human life cycle including pregnancy, early childhood, adolescence, and old age. 


  1. Describe how maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy affects both the development of the fetus and the growth of the infant after birth.
  2. Compare the nutrient (including protein, vitamin, and mineral) needs of pregnant and non-pregnant women.
  3. Discuss the need for dietary supplements during pregnancy.
  4. Explain the impact of smoking, alcohol, drugs, and caffeine on pregnancy and the developing fetus.
  5. Explain pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia) and gestational diabetes.
  6. List the benefits of breastfeeding and indicate the changes a lactating woman needs to make in her diet to promote the health of her infant.
  7. Identify the hormones involved with the production and release of breast milk.
  8. Define fertilization, fetus, embryo, placenta, and colostrum.
  9. Identify dietary guidelines to meet basic nutritional needs for normal growth and development of an infant and discuss the do’s and don’ts associated with infant feeding.
  10. Describe the nutrient needs of young children, how they develop, and how they change as they grow.
  11. Discuss appropriate feeding practices including issues of choking, portion size, and snacking.
  12. Discuss nutrition-related concerns of children including the link between diet and behavior, the problem with lead, and the impact of television on nutrition.
  13. Discuss the health risks associated with obesity in children and adolescents.
  14. Compare and contrast the nutrient (including calcium and iron) and energy needs of children, adolescents, and the elderly. 
  15. List some the suspected connections between diet and disease.
  16. List the biological changes that occur during the aging process and discuss how these changes impact nutrition in older adults.


• Communication: The graduate can communicate effectively for the intended purpose and audience.
• Critical Thinking: The graduate can make informed decisions after analyzing information or evidence related to the issue.
• Global Literacy: The graduate can analyze human behavior or experiences through cultural, social, political, or economic perspectives.
• Information Literacy: The graduate can responsibly use information gathered from a variety of formats in order to complete a task.
• Quantitative Reasoning: The graduate can apply quantitative methods or evidence to solve problems or make judgments.
• Scientific Literacy: The graduate can produce or interpret scientific information presented in a variety of formats.

CDO marked YES apply to this course:
Communication: YES
Critical Thinking: YES
Information Literacy: YES
Quantitative Reasoning: YES
Scientific Literacy: YES


  1. Nutrition and Human Health
    1. Factors that influence food choices
    2. Six classes of nutrients and their role in body
    3. Energy yield of nutrients
    4. RDA for energy and nutrients
    5. Food labeling
    6. Dietary Guidelines
  2. Carbohydrates
    1. Simple Carbohydrates
      1. Monosaccharide structure, function and examples
      2. Disaccharide structure, function and examples
    2. Complex Carbohydrates
      1. Polysaccharides structure, function and examples
    3. Role of carbohydrates in the body
    4. Dietary guidelines for carbohydrates
    5. Abnormal use of carbohydrates
    6. Artificial sweeteners
  3. Lipids
    1. Triglycerides structure, function and examples
    2. Phospholipid structure, function and example
    3. Sterols structure, function and examples
    4. Digestion, transport, and absorption of lipids
    5. Role of lipids in the body
    6. Dietary recommendations for lipids
    7. Sources of lipids in reference to MyPlate
    8. Disease associated with lipid intake
  4. Protein
    1. Structure of proteins
    2. Essential and non-essential amino acids
    3. Digestion and absorption of proteins
    4. Role of protein
    5. Protein quality
    6. Dietary guidelines for protein
    7. Protein effect on health
    8. Vegetarian diets
    9. Food sources of protein
  5. Vitamins
    1. Characteristics of vitamins
    2. Classification by solubility
    3. Function and sources of each vitamin
    4. Deficiency diseases associated with vitamins
    5. Mega-dosing of vitamins
    6. Food preparation and vitamin conservation
    7. Vitamin supplementation
  6. Water and Minerals
    1. Functions of water in the body
    2. Characteristics of minerals
    3. Function and source of each mineral
    4. Deficiency diseases associated with minerals
    5. Mineral supplementation
    6. Factors affecting mineral absorption
  7. Digestive System
    1. Organs of the digestive system
    2. Mechanical digestion
    3. Chemical digestion
    4. Absorption, transport of nutrients
    5. Convertibility and storage of nutrients
  8. Energy, Physical Activity, and Weight Control
    1. Energy balance
    2. Body composition
    3. Obesity, definition and causes and risks
    4. Healthy weight loss
    5. Diet and physical activity
    6. Eating disorders
    7. Diet self-study
    8. Benefits of physical activity
    9. Energy sources for physical activity
    10. Heat-related illness
    11. Ergonomic aids
  9. Food Safety
    1. Food borne pathogens
    2. Preserving food
    3. Food contamination prevention
    4. Food borne illnesses
    5. GMO foods
    6. Government agencies involved
  10. Nutrition Through the Human Life Cycle
    1. Nutrition during pregnancy
    2. Disorders during pregnancy
    3. Nutrition and breast feeding in infants.
    4. Nutritional needs during childhood, adolescence, and old age
    5. Obesity in children and adolescents

Primary Faculty
Wylie, Kristin
Secondary Faculty
Kelly, Cathy
Associate Dean
Young, Randall
Pritchett, Marie

Official Course Syllabus - Macomb Community College, 14500 E 12 Mile Road, Warren, MI 48088

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