Jun 21, 2024  
College Catalog 2022-2023 
College Catalog 2022-2023 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIOL 1000 - General Biology 1

Credit Hours: 4.00

Prerequisites: None

An introductory lecture and laboratory course in basic biological principles aimed at an understanding of the life processes common to all living things. The major areas of emphasis include the chemical and cellular basis of life, reproduction, growth, development, heredity, evolution, and ecology.

Billable Contact Hours: 7

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Outcome 1: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to demonstrate knowledge of the chemical and cellular basis of life.


  1. Draw Bohr models of atoms of elements commonly found in living things.
  2. Based on atomic structure, predict the number of bonds formed by atoms of elements commonly found in biomolecules.
  3. Explain how positive and negative ions form.
  4. Illustrate the polar nature of water and state its importance to biological systems.
  5. Explain the pH scale.
  6. List the four categories of biomolecules, state their functions, and give examples of each.
  7. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  8. List the typical parts of eukaryotic cells and their functions.
  9. Contrast plant and animal cells.

Outcome 2: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to state, in writing, the mechanisms by which substances enter and exit cells.


  1. Distinguish between passive and active forms of transport.
  2. Explain diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
  3. Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.

Outcome 3: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to identify the basic principles of energy as they relate to the cell.


  1. Demonstrate how energy is gained or lost in metabolic pathways.
  2. Describe the structure and function of enzymes.
  3. Give the overall equations for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
  4. Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are coupled reactions.
  5. Name the major energy rich compound in cells and its formation.
  6. Associate chloroplast structure with the process of photosynthesis.
  7. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration with respect to products and efficiency.

Outcome 4: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to explain the importance of cell growth, reproduction, and the processes involved.


  1. List the stages of the cell cycle and state the major events of each.
  2. Briefly explain the steps and outcomes of mitosis and meiosis.
  3. Contrast mitosis and meiosis.
  4. Distinguish asexual from sexual reproduction including advantages and disadvantages of each.

Outcome 5: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to understand the basic concepts of Mendelian and molecular genetics.


  1. Explain Mendelian inheritance using monohybrid crosses.
  2. Explain incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, and polygenic inheritance.
  3. Explain the inheritance of autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant disorders.
  4. Predict the outcome for nondisjunction.
  5. Describe the structure of DNA and its replication.
  6. Outline the steps involved in transcription and translation.
  7. Describe the types of mutations and their consequences.
  8. Explain the importance of recombinant DNA techniques in genetic engineering and biotechnology.

Outcome 6: After successfully completing this course, the student will be able to describe the principles of ecology and evolution.


  1. Illustrate food webs and the organisms at each level.
  2. Use an energy pyramid to explain how energy flows from one trophic level to the next and comment on the efficiency of energy transfer.
  3. Explain the water, CO2, O2, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles.
  4. List the major terrestrial and aquatic biomes and the characteristics of each.
  5. Explain the process of ecological succession.
  6. Explain how human activities have resulted in environmental problems such as acid rain, global warming, deforestation, habitat destruction, air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and thinning of the ozone layer.
  7. Suggest local and global solutions to the environmental problems listed above.
  8. Explain the process of evolution and cite evidence for it.
  9. Outline Darwin’s contribution to evolution.
  10. Explain how adaptations allow organisms to survive in the environment.

• Communication: The graduate can communicate effectively for the intended purpose and audience.
• Critical Thinking: The graduate can make informed decisions after analyzing information or evidence related to the issue.
• Global Literacy: The graduate can analyze human behavior or experiences through cultural, social, political, or economic perspectives.
• Information Literacy: The graduate can responsibly use information gathered from a variety of formats in order to complete a task.
• Quantitative Reasoning: The graduate can apply quantitative methods or evidence to solve problems or make judgments.
• Scientific Literacy: The graduate can produce or interpret scientific information presented in a variety of formats.

CDO marked YES apply to this course:
Communication: YES
Critical Thinking: YES
Quantitative Reasoning: YES
Scientific Literacy: YES

1. Characteristics of Science/Biology/Life

  1. What is Science? (Define)
  2. What is Biology? (Define)
  3. Science as Process/Product
  4. The Process: Scientific Method
    1. Awareness and Definition of Problem
    2. Data Gathering
    3. Hypothesis Construction
    4. Testing and Experimenting
    5. Theorizing
  5. Characteristics of Life
    1. Growth
    2. Metabolism
    3. Reproduction
    4. Irritability
    5. Evolution and Adaptation
    6. Homeostasis
    7. Cellularity
  6. Levels of Organization

Related Educational Unit Laboratory Exercise

  1. Metric Measurement
  2. Microscope

2. Chemistry of Life

  1. Matter and Energy
  2. Atoms
    1. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
    2. Atomic Numbers, Weights
    3. Structures Modeled
    4. Simple Shells
  3. Stability and 2nd Law; Molecule Formation
    1. Molecules, Compounds
    2. Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen Bonds
    3. Polarity
    4. pH: Acid/Base
    5. Molecules of Life
      1. Carbohydrates: Structure, Function, Energy Value
      2. Lipids: Structure, Function, Energy Value
      3. Proteins: Structure, Function, Energy Value
      4. Nucleic Acids: DNA, RNA, ATP: Structure, Function
      5. H2O
      6. Inorganic minerals

Related Educational Unit Laboratory Exercise

  1. Molecules of life
  2. Action of enzymes digestion

3. Cell Structure and Function

  1. Development of Cell Concept: Hooke (1660s), VanLeeuwenhoek (early 1700s), Schleiden (1830s), Schwann (1850s)
  2. Cell Theory: All Organisms Composed of Cells and All Cells from Pre-existing Cells
  3. Techniques: Light vs. Electron Microscope
  4. Organization of Cells: Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
  5. Components of Eukaryotic Cells and Their Functions
  6. Plant vs. Animal: Compare and Contrast

Related Educational Unit Laboratory Exercise

  1. Cell Structure
  2. Plant and Animal Cells and Differences
  3. Ultra Structure

4. Cell Membranes and Transport Mechanisms

  1. Current Model of Membrane Structure
  2. Principles of Diffusion
  3. Principles of Osmosis: Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Isotonic, Turgor
  4. Principles of Mediated Transport: Facilitated, Active
  5. Other types of active transport
    1. Endocytosis: Pinocytosis, Phagocytosis
    2. Exocytosis

Related Educational Unit Laboratory Exercise

  1. Diffusion
  2. Osmosis
  3. Surface Area/Volume Ratio
  4. Plasmolysis

5. Cell Dynamics: Cellular Metabolism: Photosynthesis and Respiration

  1. Energy
    1. Definition
    2. Forms
  2. Laws of Energy
  3. Units of Energy
  4. Metabolic Pathways
    1. Anabolic
    2. Catabolic
  5. Enzymes/Coenzymes: Roles
  6. Energy Rich Compounds and their Formation
    1. ATP
    2. Chemiosmosis
  7. Autotrophic Metabolism vs. Heterotrophic Metabolism
  8. Chloroplast Structure
  9. Absorption Spectra of Chlorophylls (P680, P700)
  10. Photolysis
  11. Light Dependent Reactions
  12. Light Independent Reactions
  13. General Equation for Photosynthesis
  14. General Equation for Cellular Respiration
  15. Central Role of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Energy Production
  16. Contributions of Protein and Lipid Metabolism to Energy Production
  17. Mechanics of Glycolysis, Transition Reaction, Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport System
  18. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Metabolism
  19. Hydrogen and Electron Carriers
  20. Efficiency of Energy Transitions from Glucose to ATP; production of ATP

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises

  1. Photosynthesis: sites, rates, conditions
  2. Fluorescence

6. Cell Growth and Reproduction

  1. Mitosis and Cytokinesis
  2. Cell Structures Necessary to Division
  3. The Cell Cycle
  4. Mitosis in Detail
  5. Plant vs Animal Mitosis
  6. Mitosis vs Meiosis
  7. Ploidy
  8. Sexual Reproduction Contributing Variation in Genes
  9. Meiosis in Detail
  10. Tetrads, Crossing-over, and Non-disjunction
  11. Gametogenesis
  12. Tissue Formation Differentiation

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercise

  1. Plant and Animal Mitosis and Meiosis
  2. Plant and Animal Reproduction

7. Mendelian Genetics

  1. Mendelian Principles
  2. Monohybrid, Dihybrid and Back Crosses
  3. Incomplete Dominance
  4. Linkage
  5. Multiple Alleles
  6. Cross-over and Variation
  7. Sex Linkage
  8. Punnett’s Square and Probability Theory
  9. Chromosome Mapping
  10. Gene Interaction: Epistasis

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercise

  1. Corn Genetics (seeds and plants)
  2. Taste Testing
  3. Human Traits
  4. Karyotypes

8. Molecular Genetics

  1. Historical Evidence for DNA’s Role in Inheritance
  2. DNA: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  3. DNA: Structural Organization, Watson and Crick Model
  4. Replication of DNA
  5. Transcription
  6. Translation
  7. Protein Synthesis
  8. The Genetic Code
  9. Mutations
  10. Recombinant DNA, Genetic Engineering

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercise

  1. DNA Model
  2. Pea Enzymes
  3. Sickle Cell Trait Slides
  4. DNA fingerprinting
  5. Fruit Fly Chromosomes
  6. DNA Extraction

9. Evolution

  1. Evolutionary History and Current Theory
  2. Patterns and Rates of Evolution
  3. Speciation
  4. Geologic History of the Earth: Major Eras
  5. Hardy-Weinberg Model

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercise

  1. Genetic Drift Simulation
  2. Natural Selection Simulation
  3. Taste Testing/Application of Hardy-Weinberg Law

10. Ecology (Basic Concepts)

  1. Levels of Organization in the Biosphere
  2. Ecosystem Structure
  3. Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  4. Biochemical Cycling
  5. Trophic Levels and Energy Transfers
  6. Niche and Habit
  7. Ecological Succession
  8. Population Interactions
  9. Reproductive Strategies

Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercise

  1. Symbiosis
  2. Hay Infusion
  3. Nature Center
  4. Diversity of Life/Taxonomy


Presented at the discretion of the instructor. No priority implied by position in list.

  1. Selected Plant and Animal Systems:
    1. Digestive
    2. Circulatory
    3. Respiratory
    4. Immune
    5. Reproductive
    6. Endocrine
    7. Nervous
    8. Excretory
  2. Animal Behavior
  3. Human Evolution
  4. Origin of Life
  5. Diversity of Life
  6. Multicellular Organization
  7. Population Dynamics: r and K strategists

Primary Faculty
Riddell, Pamela
Secondary Faculty
Nielubowicz, Greta
Associate Dean
Young, Randall
Pritchett, Marie

Official Course Syllabus - Macomb Community College, 14500 E 12 Mile Road, Warren, MI 48088

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