Nov 26, 2021  
College Catalog 2021-2022 
    
College Catalog 2021-2022
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BIOL 2400 - General Microbiology

Credit Hours: 4.00


Prerequisites: BIOL 1000  with grade C or better

An introduction to the study of bacteria and other microorganisms emphasizing the interrelationships of their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry to their roles in the living environment. Designed to meet the requirements of the science major and preprofessional student.

Billable Contact Hours: 6

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OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES
Outcome 1: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to demonstrate use of critical thinking in the understanding of the microbial world.

Outcome 2: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to demonstrate basic laboratory skills used in the study of microorganisms.

Outcome 3: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to explain the basic principles of microbial physiology and anatomy.

Outcome 4: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to summarize basic microbial interactions with other life forms including man.

Outcome 5: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to describe methods of controlling microbial growth in both living and non-living environments.

Objectives:

  1. Unit I. General Introduction
    1. Develop the ability to use the microscope that is equipped with an oil immersion lens
    2. Identify the various theories that have led up to the modem theory of microbes.
    3. Identify the species of bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoans.
    4. Identify the specific names of organisms with the disease activity with which they are associated.
    5. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organization by their structure and function.
    6. Demonstrate the various methods of microbial growth.
    7. Describe the process of metabolism and enzyme production of microbes.
    8. Describe the genetics of microbes.
    9. Apply the chemical and physical techniques of microbial control.
    10. Describe the various types of immunity responses to microbes in cells.
    11. Describe the epidemiology of infectious disease.
    12. Describe the sanitation microbiology, food microbiology, and industrial microbiology.
      1. Outline of Specific Topics
        1. History of Microbiology
        2. Diversity of Organisms Included in Microbiology
        3. Contributions of Microbiology to Modern Life
      2. Performance Objectives
        Upon completion of this unit, the student should be able to achieve the following performance
        Objectives:
        1. Describe the major groups of organisms that are included in microbiology.
        2. Describe the contributions of individual scientist to the development of the science of microbiology.
        3. Explain the concepts of spontaneous generation and biogenesis and the experiments of Pasteur to affirm biogenesis.
        4. List the developments that lead to the germ theory of disease.
        5. Relate the contributions that Koch’s Postulates have made to the procedures of microbiology.
        6. Relate five important areas of modern life to which microbes make contributions.
      3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
        1. Become familiar with the compound microscope equipped with an oil immersion lens.
        2. Observe under the microscope examples of the diverse types of microbes.
      4. Audiovisual Materials
        1. New Look at Bacteria, ¾” VC; MCC AV
  2. Unit II. Classification and Survey of Microbes
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Five Kingdom Classifications of Organisms
      2. Bergey’s Manual Revision
      3. Important Species of Bacteria Grouped by Bergey’s Manual
      4. Important Species of Algae, Fungi, Protozoan
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. State the importance and need for classification.
      2. List taxonomic ranks.
      3. Describe early and modern approaches to classification.
      4. Describe how nucleic acid X base composition and nucleicacid hybridization studies will contribute to new classification of Monera.
      5. Describe how sequence studies of ribosomal RNA have led to an evolutionary classification bacteria.
      6. List at least 6 characteristics used to classify and identify bacteria according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bactriology.
      7. In a chart form, list the scientific name of the organisms with the disease or activity with which they are associated.
        1. Treponema palladium
        2. Klevsiella pneumonia
        3. Leptospira ap.
        4. Chlamydia trachomatis
        5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
        6. Staphylococcus aureus
        7. Legionella sp
        8. Bacillus anthracis
        9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
        10. Clostridium tetani
        11. Bordetalla pertussis
        12. Clostridium botulinum
        13. Rhizobium sp.
        14. Corynebacterium diptheriae
        15. Azotobacter sp.
        16. Mycobactgerium tuberculosis
        17. Eschrichia coli
        18. Muycobacterium leprae
        19. Salmonella sp.
        20. Actinmhces sp.
        21. Yersinia pestis
        22. Streptomyces sp
          (List of organisms may vary with instructor)
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Staining Techniques
        1. Prepare wet-mount smears from agar slant and broth cultures.
        2. Prepare following stains: simple gram, spore, acid-fast, capsule.
        3. Determine motility by hanging drop.
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. Fungi, 16 mm film; MCC -A.V.
      2. Viruses, 16 mm film; MCC -A.V.
  3. Unit III. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Structure and Function
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Cell Shape
      2. Surface Structures
      3. Cell Wall
      4. Internal Structures
      5.  Endospores
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Relate the function of the following structures found in typical prokaryotic cells:
        1. Capsule
        2. Flagella
        3. Pili
        4. Cell wall
        5. plasma membrane
        6. Endospores
        7. Nucleoid
        8. Ribosomes
      2. Describe the unique structure of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of prokaryotes.
      3. Relate the structure of gram (+) and gram (-) cell walls to their Gram stain characteristics.
      4. Describe the function of the following structures found in typical eukaryotic cells:
        1. Flagella and cilia
        2. Cell wall
        3. Plasma membrane
        4. Nucleus
        5. Endoplasmic
      5. Distinguish the principal differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
      6. Relate the theory about the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic cells from primitive prokaryotes.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Culture Techniques
        1. Pure culture methods
        2. Selective, differential, and enriched media
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. Microbial Cell Structures, 35 mm slides and cassette, MCC Biology Department
  4. Unit IV. Microbial Growth
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Physical and Chemical Requirements
      2. Culture Methods
      3. Growth Measurement
      4. Open and Closed Growth Systems
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. List the basic nutrients required for bacterial growth.
      2. Identify the role and common sources of:
        1. Nitrogen.
        2. Carbon.
        3. Vitamins.
        4. Growth factors.
        5. Mineral salts in media.
      3. List the external conditions necessary for bacterial growth.
      4. Categorize bacteria according to their optimal growth by:
        1. Temperature.
        2. pH.
        3. Gaseous requirement.
        4. Osmotic pressure.
      5. List how bacteria are enumerated:
        1. Direct methods.
        2. Indirect methods.
      6. Draw the bacterial growth curve and list what occurs in each phase.
      7. Chemostate flow rate of substrate set. List two types of continuous culture devices and how they are used to study cell growth:
        1. Chemostate - flow rate of substrate set.
        2. Turbidoetats - optical measure of culture controls flow rate of substrate.
      8. Define cell mass and cell number and how they are measured.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Environmental Growth Requirements
        1. Temperature
        2. Oxygen
      2. Cell Population Determination Methods
    4. Audiovisual Materials
  5. Unit V. Metabolism and Enzymes
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Nutritional Patterns
      2. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
      3. Enzyme Nomenclature
      4. Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity
      5. Enzyme Inhibition
      6. Catabolic and Anabolic Metabolism
      7. Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Define metabolism and describe the fundamental differences between anabolism and catabolism.
      2. Describe the mechanics of enzyme action and list the factors that effect enzyme activity.
      3. List three types of phosphorylation reactions that generate ATP.
      4. Explain oxidation-reduction reactions and their relation to metabolism.
      5. List the nutritional patterns of organisms.
      6. List the reactant and the product molecules of glycolysis.
      7. List the reactants and products of Kreb’s cycle.
      8. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
      9. Describe the reactions and list some products of fermentation.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. DNA Recombination and Cloning in Host E.  Coli
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. 100 Years of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory ½” VC, MCC -A.V.
  6. Unit VI. Microbial Genetics
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Structure of Prokaryotic Chromosome
      2. Prokaryotic Plasmid
      3. Protein Synthesis and Genetic Code
      4. Mutations
      5. Transformation, Conjugation, Transduction
      6. Gene Engineering
      7. Operon Model
      8. Recombinant DNA technology and Genomics
      9. Proteomics
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Review the structure of DNA, RNA, and proteins.
      2. Review the relationship of DNA à RNA à protein.
      3. Assemble proteins by using the genetic code.
      4. Understand the unique structure of and replication of the haploid prokaryotic chromosome.
      5. Understand the structure and function of the plasmid.
      6. Understand the significance of mutation frequency, mutagenic agents, and methods of selection for mutations in prokaryotes.
      7. Distinguish the difference between the three methods of gene transfer in prokaryotes:
        1. Transformation.
        2. Conjugation.
        3. Transduction.
      8. Understand that the Inc operon model will be used as an example of gene regulation.
      9. Discuss recombinant DNA technology, including such terms as cloning, PCR reaction, reverse transcriptase, and homologous sections of DNA as part of the discussion.
      10. Define the terms genomics and proteomics as well as give examples of how these kinds of studies can be applied to microbiology.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Physiological Growth Characteristics
    4. Audiovisual Materials
  7. Unit VII. Control of Microbes
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Chemical Control Methods
      2. Mode of Action
      3. Factors Affecting Action
      4. Physical Control Methods
      5. Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutic Agents
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Define the following terms:
        1. Sterilization.
        2. Disinfection.
        3. Antisepsis.
        4. Germicide.
        5. Bacteriostasis.
        6. Asepsis.
        7. Degerming.
        8. Sanitization.
      2. Describe the patterns of microbial death caused by treatment with control agents.
      3. List the physical methods of control.
      4. List the chemical method of control.
      5. Define a chemotherapeutic agent and distinguish between a synthetic and an antibiotic.
      6. Identify 5 methods of action of antimicrobial agents.
      7. Describe the problems of chemotherapy for viral, fungal, protozoan, and helminthic infections.
      8. Describe 3 tests for microbial susceptibility.
      9. Describe the mechanisms of drug resistance.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Control Methods
        1. Antibiotic and antiseptic evaluation
        2. U-V light control
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Energy Production by Microorganisms. 35 mm slides and audiocassette; MCC -Biology Department
  8. Unit VIII. Immune Response
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Four Kinds of Acquired Immunity
      2. Structure and Function of the Antigen and Antibodies
      3. Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity
      4. Immune Response
      5. Vaccines
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Contrast the 4 kinds of acquired immunity.
      2. Define the following:
        1. Immunity.
        2. Antigen.
        3. Anamnestic response.
        4. Iymphokines.
        5. Monoclonal antibody.
      3. Describe the structural and chemical characteristics of antibodies.
      4. Compare and contrast humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Identification of Unknown Organisms. (cant.)
      2. Antigen - Antibody Rx - Agglutination.
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. Immune Response, 16 mm film; MCC - A.V.
      2. Immunology: The Fighting Edge, MCC - A.V.
  9. Unit IX. Epidemiology and Infectious Disease
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Principles of Epidemiology
      2. Modes of Transmission
      3. Control Measures
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Define normal flora and discuss how it may become an agent of disease.
      2. List Koch’s postulates.
      3. Define a reservoir of infection; contrast human, animal and non-living reservoirs.
      4. Explain the importance of nosocomial infections.
      5. Explain four methods of transmission of disease.
      6. Categorize disease according to incidence.
      7. Describe the methods of epidemiologic investigation.
      8. Differentiate between communicable and a non-communicable disease.
      9. Define portal of entry, pathogenicity and virulence.
      10. Explain the common portals of entry.
      11. Discuss the methods by which the pathogen penetrates the host defense.
      12. Compare exotoxine and endotoxins.
  10. Unit X. Environmental Microbiology
    1. Outline of Specific Topics
      1. Sanitation Microbiology
        1. Waste water treatment
        2. Solid waste disposal
        3. Natural water stratification
      2. Food Microbiology
        1. Food preparation
        2. Food spoilage
      3. Industrial microbiology
        1. Medical products
        2. Chemical products
    2. Performance Objectives
      Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
      1. Describe the freshwater habitats of microorganisms.
      2. Discuss the causes and effects of eutrophication.
      3. Compare primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatments.
      4. Explain how water is tested for bacteriologic quality.
      5. Outline the carbon and nitrogen cycles and explain the roles of microorganisms in these cycles.
      6. Provide a brief history of the development of food preservation.
      7. Describe low-temperature preservation and aseptic packaging.
      8. Define pasteurization and explain why dairy products are pasteurized.
      9. Outline four beneficial activities of microorganisms in food production.
    3. Related Educational Unit - Laboratory Exercises
      1. Environmental Testing Methods
        1. Water testing
        2. Bacterial counts of food
      2. Normal flora
        1. Hand washing
        2. Nose, throat culture
    4. Audiovisual Materials
      1. Conquest of the Parasites, 1/21 VC; MCC -A.V. Department

COMMON DEGREE OUTCOMES (CDO)
• Communication: The graduate can communicate effectively for the intended purpose and audience.
• Critical Thinking: The graduate can make informed decisions after analyzing information or evidence related to the issue.
• Global Literacy: The graduate can analyze human behavior or experiences through cultural, social, political, or economic perspectives.
• Information Literacy: The graduate can responsibly use information gathered from a variety of formats in order to complete a task.
• Quantitative Reasoning: The graduate can apply quantitative methods or evidence to solve problems or make judgments.
• Scientific Literacy: The graduate can produce or interpret scientific information presented in a variety of formats.

CDO marked YES apply to this course:
Communication: YES
Critical Thinking: YES
Global Literacy: YES
Information Literacy: YES
Quantitative Reasoning: YES
Scientific Literacy: YES

COURSE CONTENT OUTLINE
Core Lecture Topics

  1. General introduction
  2. Survey of microbiological organisms
  3. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic structure and function
  4. Microbial growth
  5. Metabolism and enzymes
  6. Microbial genetics
  7. Control of microbes
  8. Immune response
  9. Epidemiology and infectious disease
  10. Environmental microbiology

Core Lab Topics

  1. Microscope use and survey of microbes
  2. Staining techniques
  3. Culture techniques
  4. Environmental growth requirements
  5. Control methods
  6. Physiological growth characteristics
  7. Identification of unknown organisms
  8. Environmental testing methods
  9. Normal flora
  10. Recombinant DNA techniques using microbes

Primary Faculty
Talbot, Amanda
Secondary Faculty
Kelley, Mary
Associate Dean
Young, Randall
Dean
Pritchett, Marie



Official Course Syllabus - Macomb Community College, 14500 E 12 Mile Road, Warren, MI 48088



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